Tetragonal BF-xPT-0.1BZT ceramics with high Curie temperature and large piezoelectric constant (2023)

Introduction

Piezoelectric materials with good stabilities and long-term durability under high temperature conditions are urgently needed for using in harsh industrial environments such as petroleum exploration and aerospace industries [[1], [2], [3]]. In geological mining, the working temperature of piezoelectric actuators can even reach up to 500°C [4,5]. PbNb2O6 and PbTiO3 are commonly used single compositions with TC of approximately 570°C and 490°C for these applications, and their good thermal stability makes them well-established candidates for high temperature applications [6,7]. However, the piezoelectric constant below 100pC/N and the preparation difficulty resulting from their negative thermal expansion phenomenon greatly limit the commercial application of PbNb2O6 and PbTiO3 ceramics [6].

Piezoelectric ceramics in the form of solid solutions, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), possess excellent piezoelectric properties with d33 of 374pC/N (PZT-5A) at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) [8]. However, the working temperature TW range for piezoelectric devices of PZT is below 150°C because of the low Curie temperature, which is not satisfying the high temperature applications. Most recently, Bi-based solid solutions Bi(Me)O3–PbTiO3 (Me=Sc, In, Fe, Y, Yb, etc.) with ABO3 structure have attracted widespread attention due to their ability to achieve outstanding piezoelectric properties (comparable to PZT) or high Curie temperature of up to 600°C by adjusting the type and content of Me elements [9]. Among them, BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) possesses both large d33 ∼ 460pC/N and high TC∼450°C at MPB, and the TW of which is above 200°C [10]. (Bi,La)(Ga,Fe)O3-(Pb,Ba)TiO3 (BLGF-PBT) solid solutions have high TC of ∼340°C, and the d33 at MPB achieves about 186pC/N [11]. It is known that Bi(Me)O3–PbTiO3 solid solutions have mixed rhombohedral and tetragonal phases in the vicinity of MPB, exhibiting the large dielectric and piezoelectric constants, but the thermal stability of εr and d33 are poor for these mixed phase ceramics. For example, the variation of εr and d33 of BS-PT-CT ceramics with the coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases are about ΔεrT ∼72 /℃ and Δd33T ∼71% /℃ in temperature range of 200–400°C [12].

Studies have shown that introducing the third end member into BF-PT-based solid solutions to form rhombohedral or tetragonal phased ternary ceramics could improve the dielectric and piezoelectric thermal stability of ceramics. For instance, the rhombohedral BiFeO3-0.29PbTiO3-0.05BaZrO3 ceramics and tetragonal BiFeO3-0.37PbTiO3-0.13Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics display lower variations of d33d33T) over a temperature range of 200°C–400°C, with only 1.9% /℃ and 7% /℃, respectively [13,14]. In addition, the variation of the εr for tetragonal BiFeO3-0.33PbTiO3-0.15BaTiO3 ceramics (ΔεrT=2.8 /℃) at 200–400°C is less than that of the mixed phase BiFeO3-0.48PbTiO3-0.2BaZrO3 ceramics (ΔεrT=9.0 /℃) [15,16]. These findings suggest that the thermal stability of single-phase ceramics is superior to that of mixed phase ceramics, likely due to their stable domain configuration and high polarization switching energy [17].

The BF-0.275PT-0.175BZT ceramics exhibit large piezoelectric constant d33 ∼ 220pC/N and Curie temperature TC ∼434°C, while the problem is that Ba2+ and Zr4+ ions weaken the bonding force of Bi/Pb–O and Fe/Ti–O, resulting in low Curie temperature of the ceramics [18,19]. The reduction of BZT content in BF-PT-BZT single-phase ceramics may concurrently improve the TC and thermal stability. In this paper, tetragonal BiFeO3-xPbTiO3-0.1Ba(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 ceramics with different PT contents were designed and prepared by the traditional solid-state reaction method to improve the d33, TC and thermal stability. The effects of PT content on the structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and high-temperature piezoelectric properties were investigated systematically.

Section snippets

Experimental procedure

The ternary ceramics of (0.9-x)BiFeO3-xPbTiO3-0.1Ba(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BF-xPT-0.1BZT, x=0.29, 0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were fabricated by the solid-state reaction method. Bi2O3 (99%), Fe2O3 (99%), PbO (99%), TiO2 (99%), BaCO3 (99%) and ZrO2 (99%) were weighed and batched based on the stoichiometric ratio, and then ball milled in polyethylene jar with zirconia balls and ethanol for 24h. The mixtures were dried and then calcined in crucibles at 750°C for 4h. The calcined powders were ball milled

Results and discussion

Fig. 1 displays the room temperature XRD patterns of BF-xPT-0.1BZT ternary ceramics. It is observed that the BF-xPT-0.1BZT ceramics show pure perovskite structure with dominant tetragonal phase without detectable second phases, indicating that BiFeO3, PbTiO3 and Ba(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 form the homogeneous solid solutions with various x values. The increasing concentration of PbTiO3 induces an increase in the distance between (001)T and (100)T diffraction peaks and the largest peak separation observed

Conclusions

In summary, BF-xPT-0.1BZT ternary ceramics with high Curie temperature and excellent piezoelectric constant were prepared by the traditional solid-state reaction method. The content of PT has a great influence on the microstructure and electrical properties of BF-xPT-0.1BZT ceramics. The increase of PT content can effectively increase the grain size and tetragonality of BF-xPT-0.1BZT, and c/a is tailored to 1.041at x=0.31. BF-0.31PT-0.1BZT possesses the largest piezoelectric constant d33 of

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Open Fund of National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Underwater Acoustic Antagonizing (Grant No. JCKY2020207CH02), Original exploration project of Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 22ZR1481100), the Young Scientists Fund and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 12204300 and 51872180).

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FAQs

What is the Curie temperature of piezoelectric ceramics? ›

The commercial piezoelectric material PZT possesses a Curie temperature of about 350°C, but has a maximum recommended operation temperature of 150-250°C.

What is the number 1 most common ceramic piezoelectric material? ›

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), barium titanate (BT), and strontium titanate (ST) are the most widely used piezoelectric ceramic materials.

Why is the dielectric constant of PZT high? ›

PZT materials have a large dielectric constant, piezoelectric, and poling efficiency when the concentration (x) approaches 0.52. It is due to the enhanced number of admissible domain states at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB).

What is the Curie point of ceramics? ›

BaTiO3 ceramic dielectric material are the most common, proved dielectric material used in mass production of ceramic capacitors today. Due to its structure, the maximum capacitance value is achieved nearby Curie temperature ~ 125°C.

What is the maximum temp for piezo? ›

Piezo Transducers: Sensing, Ultrasound

PI HVPZTs have a Curie temperature of 300°C and can be operated up to a max temperature of 150°C and some cases to 200°C (with high temperature option).

What is the effect of temperature on piezoelectric material? ›

It is observed that as the temperature increases, the resonant frequency decreases. The resonant frequency of the piezoelectric element is directly proportional to stiffness constant. If the temperature of the piezoelectric element increases, its stiffness decreases, and so the resonant frequency decreases.

What is the strongest piezoelectric material? ›

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) exhibits the highest piezoelectricity among all piezoelectric polymers. Along with the high electromechanical coupling coefficient and its semicrystalline nature, makes PVDF a popular choice for fabrication of robust and sensitive sensors (Fig. 7.26).

What are the best piezoelectric ceramics? ›

The most commonly produced piezoelectric ceramics are lead zirconate titanate (PZT), barium titanate, and lead titanate. Gallium nitride and zinc oxide can also be regarded as a ceramic due to their relatively wide band gaps.

What is the strongest ceramic ever? ›

Silicon Carbide (SiC) The technical properties of silicon carbide are remarkably similar to those of diamond. It is one of the lightest, hardest and strongest technical ceramic materials and has exceptional thermal conductivity, chemical resistance and low thermal expansion.

What happens if dielectric constant is high? ›

As the dielectric constant increases, the electric flux density increases (if all other factors remain unchanged). This property enables objects of a given size, such as metal plates, to hold large quantities of electric charge for long periods of time. A high dielectric constant is not necessarily desirable.

What does a large dielectric constant mean? ›

We define the dielectric constant as the ratio of the electric flux density in a material to the electric flux density in a vacuum. A material with a high dielectric constant can store more electrical energy than a material with a low dielectric constant.

Is higher dielectric constant better? ›

Low dielectric constant values are preferred for high frequency or power applications to minimize electric power loss. High values of dielectric constant are recommended for capacitance applications of small sizes.

What happens to a material above Curie temperature? ›

above the curie temperature, a ferromagnetic material becomes paramagnetic.

What is the highest Curie point? ›

One of the highest Curie points is 1,121 °C (2,050 °F) for cobalt. Temperature increases above the Curie point produce roughly similar patterns of decreasing paramagnetism in all three classes of materials.

What ceramic has the highest melting point? ›

The largest class of carbides, including Hf, Zr, Ti and Ta carbides have high melting points due to covalent carbon networks although carbon vacancies often exist in these materials; indeed, HfC has one of the highest melting points of any material.

What are the disadvantages of piezo? ›

One disadvantage of piezoelectric materials is that they cannot be used for truly static measurements. In addition, the piezoelectric materials also show disadvantages in the unfavorable compatibility and poor durability with the concrete structures [71].

What is the max voltage for piezo? ›

The maximum allowable field strength in piezo actuators is between 1 and 2 kV/mm in the polarization direction. In the reverse direction (semi-bipolar operation), at most 300 V/mm is allowable (see Fig. 10). The maximum voltage depends on the ceramic and insulation materials.

How much power can piezo generate? ›

As with any other form of electrical current, the energy generated through piezoelectricity can be used, but its quantity is somewhat limited; it is around 20 watts (in comparison, a mobile phone charges at 15 watts).

What are the challenges of piezoelectric materials? ›

A challenge of piezoelectrics is that while they are efficient at optimal resonance, only a slight variation away from the optimal resonant frequency causes a significant reduction in energy generation - the bell curve is very steep.

What are piezoelectric materials for high temperature sensors? ›

HT Piezoelectric (HTPE) Sensing

Various piezoelectric materials have been extensively researched for high-temperature applications, including quartz (SiO2), lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN), gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4), langasite (La3Ga5SiO14, LGS) and aluminum nitride (AlN) [21,22].

What does piezoelectric effect convert to? ›

In a nutshell, piezoelectricity is the process of using crystals to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy or vice versa. Regular crystals are defined by their organized and repeating structure of atoms that are held together by bonds, called a unit cell.

Which is better piezo or cavitron? ›

Both piezo and magnetostrictive (eg. Cavitron) can be effective if used correctly. The Cavitron has more active surfaces and so is somewhat less technique sensitive when it comes to calculus removal. BUT it is more technique sensitive when it comes to minimizing root damage.

Why is piezoelectric not used? ›

Piezoelectric ceramics have limited energy outputs, and therefore are potentially cost-prohibitive to feasibly use in any large-scale energy harvesting application.

What are some limitations of piezoelectric ceramics? ›

A piezoelectric system can be constructed for virtually any application for which any other type of electromechanical transducer can be used. For any particular application, however, limiting factors include the size, weight, and cost of the piezoelectric system.

Which piezoelectric is most efficient? ›

The single crystals PMN-PT and PZN-PT demonstrate the highest piezoelectric properties, but are more sensitive to temperate change, more susceptible to fatigue, and more difficult to manufacture than lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Therefore, PZT is still the most popular piezoelectric material in energy harvesters.

What is better than piezoelectric? ›

It is shown that electrostatic harvesters perform better than piezoelectric harvesters at low accelerations, due to lower energy losses, and the reverse is generally true at high accelerations.

What kind of ceramic is bulletproof? ›

A Twin of Bullet-Proof Armor Material

Silicon carbide and boron carbide ceramics have long been used in bulletproof armor. Boron carbide ceramics were first used in the 1960s to design bulletproof vests and to fit into the seats of airplane pilots.

What is the weakest ceramic? ›

The weakest grade of ceramic material is grade 1, which is typically non-oriented. Grades 5 and 8 are oriented ceramic material.

Can ceramic be bulletproof? ›

Ceramic armor can be used to protect vehicles as well as individual personnel, and dates back to 1918. Ceramics are known to be some of the of the hardest materials, and unlike materials such as Kevlar (which uses its fibers to "catch" the bullet), ceramics break the bullet.

What has the highest dielectric strength? ›

A perfect vacuum has the highest dielectric strength, rated at 1×1012 MV/m. A perfect vacuum contains no material to breakdown and is, therefore, the perfect electrical insulator.

Does thickness affect dielectric constant? ›

Electrical Properties of Polymeric Materials

The dielectric strength is greatly affected by the wall thickness of the test specimen. Higher dielectric strength values are reported for thinner test specimen wall thicknesses, and lower values for thicker specimens.

Which solvent has highest dielectric constant? ›

Hence, CH3OH with the highest value of dielectric constant among the given options will provide high solubility.

What material has a high dielectric constant? ›

The highest dielectric constant is Calcium Copper Titanate. The dielectric constant of Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO) is over \[10,000\] and goes deeper at higher frequencies. It used to develop supercapacitors. However, there are some limitations to its application, and it may take some time.

Which substance has an exceptionally large dielectric constant? ›

Water is one of the two major solvents in the body. It is a remarkable substance with several important properties, in particular, it has: A very high molar concentration. A large dielectric constant.

What has a large dielectric constant but it is rarely used in capacitors Why? ›

Water has low dielectric strength and high dielectric constant due to which it is not used as dielectric in a capacitor.

What is the best dielectric material? ›

Dry air is an excellent dielectric and is used in variable capacitors and some types of transmission lines. Nitrogen and helium are good dielectric gases. Distilled water is a fair dielectric. A vacuum is an exceptionally efficient dielectric.

Does moisture increase dielectric constant? ›

Effect of moisture on dielectric constant

Results showed a similar increasing tendency with increasing M for all studied material at all temperatures (Fig. 2). This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase in free water available in the matrix, moving ε′ towards the properties of pure water, ε′ = 80.

What can affect dielectric constant? ›

The dielectric constant depends upon a variety of factors, such as temperature, moisture content and frequency; all these factors should be kept constant and recorded when the dielectric constant is being measured.

What will happen if a ferromagnetic material is heated to temperature above its Curie temperature? ›

At a temperature greater than Curie temperature, ferromagnetic becomes paramagnetic.

What happens to a paramagnetic material when it is heated above its Curie temperature? ›

A paramagnetic material becomes diamagnetic.

What is the difference between transition temperature and Curie temperature? ›

The key difference between these two temperatures is that at Curie temperature, the permanent magnetic properties of certain materials are lost whereas, at Neel temperature, antiferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic.

What is the significance of Curie temperature? ›

Curie temperature is defined as the temperature at which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism. The term Curie temperature is named after Pierre Curie who showed that magnetism was lost at critical temperature.

What is typical Curie temperature? ›

Magnetism of these ferri- and ferromagnetic materials is a function of temperature, with a loss of magnetism as the materials approach their Curie temperature (typically 200–700 °C).

What is Curie most known for? ›

Marie Curie is remembered for her discovery of radium and polonium, and her huge contribution to finding treatments for cancer.

At what temperature does ceramic crack? ›

The ceramic's Achilles heel is its resistance to fracturing, however, which plummets by almost 90 per cent when the material experiences sudden changes in temperature, such as being heated above 400 °C and then dunked in room-temperature water.

At what temperature does ceramic explode? ›

The main reason that pottery explodes in the kiln is residual moisture left in the clay body even when it appears bone dry. Once the kiln reaches 212F, the moisture starts to turn into steam. The steam expands very rapidly into any small air pockets in the clay and shatters the pottery.

What is the maximum temperature ceramics can withstand? ›

Heat Resistance to Withstand Extreme Temperatures

1,220℉), alumina Fine Ceramics only begin to melt or decompose at temperatures above 2,000℃ (approx. 3,632℉).

What is the Curie temperature for PZT crystal? ›

Above a certain temperature (which is called Curie point Θc) of 120°C, the prototype crystal structure is cubic, with Ba2+ ions at the cube corners, O2- ions at the face centres and Ti4+ ion at the body centre, as shown in Fig.

What is the Curie temperature of ceramic magnet? ›

Ceramic Magnets

They have a maximum operating temperature of approximately 250 degrees Celsius or higher and a Curie temperature of about 450 degrees Celsius. These magnets, however, are not recommended for use in cryogenic applications.

What is the sintering temperature of PZT? ›

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, (PZT) is known to have excellent piezoelectric properties. In general, PZT ceramics is sintered above 1200 °C.

What is the Curie temperature for ceramic capacitor? ›

The crystalline structure for Barium Titanate based ceramics changes on passing through its Curie temperature (known as the Curie Point) at approximately 125oC.

Which material has highest Curie temperature? ›

One of the highest Curie points is 1,121 °C (2,050 °F) for cobalt. Temperature increases above the Curie point produce roughly similar patterns of decreasing paramagnetism in all three classes of materials.

What is piezoelectric constant of PZT? ›

The thickness piezoelectric coefficient (d33, f) for a PZT film was measured and found to be 50 pC/N.

What is the most magnetic substance in the world? ›

Neodymium (NdFeB)

Neodymium is mixed with iron and boron as well as traces of other elements such as dysprosium and praseodymium to produce a ferromagnetic alloy known as Nd2Fe14b, the strongest magnetic material in the world.

What would happen to a magnet if it is heated above a Curie point temperature? ›

Permanent loss of magnetic performance is experienced when a magnet is heated above its Curie temperature. At this point the structure of the magnetic domains change and become self-keepering, resulting in permanent magnetic damage which cannot be repaired by remagnetisation.

What happens when a certain metal is exposed to a high temperature or to a Curie point? ›

A piece of iron ordinarily will be attracted to a magnet, but when you heat the iron to a high enough temperature (called the Curie point), it loses its ability to be magnetized.

Does sintering increase thermal conductivity? ›

The thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of the samples increase with the increase of sintering temperature, mainly due to the reduction of porosity and more evenly distribution of the secondary phase.

How does sintering temperature affect grain size? ›

The decrease of the sintering temperature, which decreases the grain size and thus increases the grain boundary length, leads to an enhanced oxygen permeation flux and reduced activation energy. This implies that oxygen exchange and transport in the SrSc0.

References

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